Federal Revolution and the Problems of National Integration in India
The Indian Constitution established a unitary political system making the centre responsible for defence and foreign policy, and giving the states presumptiveauthority over law and order, education, and social policies. In practice, the balance of power has always titled toward the centre, which is able to reorganize, create, or eliminate the states as it wishes, and can impose "President's Rule" upon states with some ease. Within this constitutional framework, however, the federalizing process is well under way and constitutes a major change in the Indian political order. Some of the largest and most unwieldy states are "losing" territory, as three new states were created in 2000 out of parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. This movement of power to the states, and perhaps the creation of many new and smaller states have implications for India's role in the region and its relations with other countries.